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Property Tax Resources

Apr
03

Consider Appealing Assessments to Hurricane-Damaged Property

Owners of such damaged property need to explore a number of issues to ensure that their assessments reflect their losses.

Severe flooding and wind dam­age from Hurricane Harvey wrought widespread property damage across Southeast and Central Texas in August 2017. Several large counties, including Harris and Mont­gomery, sustained severe losses. As the deadline for property tax appeals approaches, there are several things to keep in mind, particularly if you own property that was damaged by the storm.

Texas law allows for reassessment of property damaged in a disaster area. A city, county, school district or other taxing jurisdiction may request a reappraisal, and the cost of the reappraisal must be covered by the requesting jurisdiction. The benefit for reappraised properties would be a proration of taxes based on the pre- and post-disaster values.

Only a handful of jurisdictions have approved a reappraisal at this time,but if your property was damaged during Hurricane Harvey, it would be wise to contact the appraisal dis­trict to see if any of the jurisdictions that tax the property have approved a reappraisal. That would take care of any relief that is available for tax year 2017. For 2018, assessed values are based on the condition of the property as of Jan. 1, 2018.

This time of year, appraisal districts across the state are working on their mass appraisal models and conduct­ing field inspections. The 2018 prop­erty tax values may reflect recent flood or wind damage that was not repaired. However, since the dam­age from Hurricane Harvey was vast and widespread, it remains uncertain whether affected counties will be able to adequately capture and reflect the effect of the storm damage in valua­tions. For that reason, it is important for property owners to be on the lookout for the Notice of Appraised Value and appeal that value during the appeal window if the valuation seems exces­sive or unfair.

Deadline Shortened

The property tax appeal deadline has changed from May 31 to May 15. Given the deadline has been moved up two weeks, now is the time to pre­pare for your 2018 property tax ap­peal by gathering the pertinent infor­mation that will be useful in fighting your assessed taxable value. It will be important to assemble documentation that shows the ex­tent of damage sustained due to the natural disaster. Taxpayers will find it beneficial to keep the appraisal dis­trict informed of any changes to the property.

Appraisal district websites have added features to allow property owners to submit information regard­ing damage to their property due to the storm. Keep detailed records of the extent of the damage, along with the cost of repair.

Demonstrating the condition of the property after the storm will go a long way toward ob­taining tax relief, so photographs of the damage are critical. If you hold any inventory or other personal property and typically elect a Sept. 1 inventory appraisal date, you may have suffered significant losses as of that date. If so, it will be especially important to provide records of the goods lost, and docu­ment whether any of the inventory was salvageable as of Sept.1.

If you are a commercial real estate owner and have tenants that were affected by the hurricane, keep track of any concessions in the way of free rent or tenant improvements that you may have given as relief. For owners of hotels or apartments, keep in mind two main consider­ations:

First, if there was damage, the loss in revenue and ability to produce future income may be significant fac­tors that the appraisal districts would be willing to consider and account for.

Second, if your property is undam­aged and in or near an affected area, you may have seen an uptick in rev­enue at the end of the year due to in­ creased demand for temporary hous­ing. The increase in revenue is not realistic stabilized income, however, and shouldnot be used to derive your 2018 taxable property value.

Further even if your property did not sustain physical storm damage, appraisal districts will be consider­ing the effect of flooding and damage to neighborhoods and surrounding properties when making market ad­justments to your property. It is im­portant to consider this when determining whether or not to appeal the value for tax year 2018.

The amount of property tax relief provided in the wake of Hurricane Harvey will largely depend on the amount of damage and where prop­erty owners were in the rebuilding process on Jan. 1. However, to obtain the best result, protest your appraised value on time, keep detailed records of both the damage sustained and the repair cost, and track concessions to tenants and lost income. And remember that, as a general rule, the more detailed and specific your records are, the better they will support a request for a lower prop­erty tax value.

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Apr
13

Taxing Times

"What assessors may try to ignore is how unsteady this recovery truly is in light of stalled economic growth."

How to Avoid Unfair Tax Assessments Due to the Economic Recovery

By Darlene Sullivan Esq., as published by Commercial Property Tax Executive, April 2013

Property taxes are the largest expense for many commercial real estate owners, so in today's stagnant economic climate, it would be wise to take initiative to ensure that tax assessments fairly represent property values.

Property tax systems vary from state to state, but no matter how the local system operates, there are some key things to keep in mind. As the nation's commercial real estate market continues its slow recovery, local assessors will try to capitalize on what appears to be a visible improvement in the availability of capital and an increased number of real estate transactions. What assessors may try to ignore, however, is how unsteady this recovery truly is in light of stalled economic growth.

One way assessors may attempt to reflect the market's recovery is by applying a lower capitalization rate to an inflated net operating income in order to arrive at a higher assessed value. Capitalization rates are a buyer's expected annual rate of return on a property purchase. Assessors observing improvement in the commercial real estate market will expect a stronger cash flow from the property combined with a decreased risk. Whether or not that expectation applies to the property, it will likely affect assessed value. While it is true that absorption levels have improved across property categories over the past year, rents have remained flat or decreased from pre-recession levels, and revenue growth still has not caught up to what it was five years ago. Local assessors need to be reminded that with revenues still struggling to recover, the absorption gains should not automatically translate into higher assessed values.

Strong performances recently by real estate investment trusts provide another way assessors may try to increase values unfairly. In this scenario, an assessor unfairly applies the limited number of REIT property sales within a sector to all of the assets in the area that fall within the same property code. Yet such a comparison may be inapplicable to a particular asset.

Following are some guidelines to ensure fair treatment from an assessor: First, review the 2013 property assessment promptly and do not miss any appeal deadlines. Most local assessing jurisdictions have Web sites and online resources to guide taxpayers through the appeal process. When reviewing your assessment, ask yourself: Did the value increase, decrease or stay flat from the previous assessment? Scrutinize it and consider an appeal of any increases in assessed value from 2012 to 2013. Second, evaluate the property's individual characteristics: Was occupancy up or down? Did revenues and expenses increase or decrease? Are there any significant items of deferred maintenance? Any changes, either positive or negative, may impact assessed value.

Third, in many states the expectation is that assessed values will increase significantly in 2013. For example, in three of the largest counties in the state of Texas, assessed values increased between 2.5 percent and 9 percent across property types from tax year 2011 to tax year 2012. Given the increased number of transactions and the signs of recovery, property owners should expect increases in 2013 at least equal to those in 2012.

In some cases, however, assessors will be even more aggressive to compensate for what they now perceive to be modest increases in 2012. If an assessment increases significantly, make sure to have the proper tools and a property tax professional to fight that assessment.

Finally, recognize that the management of property taxes may impact how quickly a particular asset recovers from the recession. A lower property tax expense means a higher net operating income and more cash flow. The money can then go back into the asset to cover any capital expenditures or can be distributed back to investors. As an added benefit, lower property taxes can impact other aspects of the property, such as occupancy. For example, keeping the property tax expense under control may allow a shopping center owner to quote lower expenses to prospective tenants, providing an edge over the competition when it comes to attracting and retaining quality retailers.

Be vigilant when it comes to property tax expense in 2013, and don't let the signs of an improving commercial real estate market drive assessed value to distorted proportions. Be aware of tactics your local assessor may be using to increase values, and know how to counter them.

DarleneSullivan140 Darlene Sullivan is a partner in the Austin-based law firm of Popp Hutcheson P.L.L.C. The firm devotes its practice to the representation of taxpayers in property tax disputes and is the Texas member of the American Property Tax Counsel (APTC), the national affiliation of property tax attorneys. Sullivan can be reached at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..

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Jan
16

Facts Before Tax

Assessors Often Overvalue Centers, Ignoring Vacancies and Other Issues

"Landlords must diligently review property taxes yearly, looking at assessments based on current marketplace conditions."

Most shopping center owners are being overtaxed and do not even know it. Or they do not realize it until they get their tax bill. The problem is in the way taxes are figured by local assessors- a methodology that was only adequate, at best, during good times, but which has become a severe handicap to landlords during this lengthy economic downturn.

In most states assessors take a mass appraisal approach, trying to determine as quickly and ubiquitously as possible the fair market value of all the shopping centers within a tax district using existing data. The assessor is looking at the market value of the property based upon fee-simple value, which is the value of the real estate without encumbrances - that is, what it would sell for if it were vacant and available for sale or lease at market rates.

"The reality is, there are few cases of commercial property selling where you have a vacant building for sale without encumbrances," said Kieran Jennings, a Cleveland-based partner at Siegel, Siegel, Johnson & Jennings. "Typically, it is partially occupied, fully occupied, et cetera. Often there are deed restrictions in place." Jennings is a member of the Washington-based American Property Tax Counsel, which assists property owners in the U.S. and Canada with tax issues.

"Assessors will look at a market, they will review published sources on cap rates, et cetera, to come up with a model that will be used on shopping centers across the board," said Darlene Sullivan, a partner at Austin, Texas-based Popp, Gray & Hutcheson, and also a member of the APTC. "They have to get their numbers out quickly and apply the model without looking specifically into any condition."

Assessments are levied in similar fashion in Michigan. "In Michigan, as in most states, value is based on market as opposed to contract rent," said Michael Shapiro, a Detroit-based partner at Honigman Miller Schwartz and Cohn, and an APTC member. "In general, the assessor uses a cost approach that has not adequately accounted for obsolescence in the market, reduced demand for property, greater vacancies and increased cap rates. All these factors have a negative impact on value. "There are two general ways overtaxing occurs. The first is the time-lag effect of a slumping market, and the second involves the lease adjustments often made to keep tenants in place, but which assessors do not take into account.

Indiana landlords were being victimized by the calendar until laws there were changed, says Stephen Paul, an Indianapolis-based partner at Baker & Daniels and an APTC member. "Our assessment date is a year behind our value date," Paul said. "For example, the assessment date was March 1, 2009, but the valuation date was January 1, 2008, and the market changed dramatically. On March 1, 2009, market conditions were worse than at the value date. People were taxed currently, but based on values when the market was much better."

The more common failure in tax assessments is the inflexibility of assessors or their inability to consider the lease inducements necessary to keep tenants. "I have a number of clients that are regional and local shopping center owners," said Jennings. "Since the fall of the real estate market, there has been tremendous pressure on them to keep tenants in place. So they have gone from net leases to gross leases, put in buildouts and removed square footage."

All these things mean that actual rents are less than what they appear to be to the assessor. Jennings gives one example where tenants will stay in place, but take up less space. To keep tenants, landlords will allow them to halve their space, which means they have effectively cut income in half. "Now when the assessors come along, they see all of your storefronts are occupied, but many of the tenants have reduced space," said Jennings. ''The landlord has pockets of dead space that will probably never be used again. The assessor is assessing you at rents that are $15 to $20 a square foot, but only half that space is being used, so the effective rent is really $7.50 to $10 a square foot. And it is not showing up in any published data, and assessors can only work from what is published."

That problem rarely gets rectified because, for competitive reasons, shopping center owners are reluctant to share information, which means, of course, that the assessors are working from incomplete data. "Shopping center owners are not amenable to giving out information to assessors," said Paul. "The landlord doesn't want to give out the details of a lease, so the assessor will say: 'If I'm not entitled to look at the lease, I have to make my own assumptions, which will be done on incorrect information. Afterward the taxpayer has to file an appeal against the assessment and layout the reasons why it was excessive."

Overtaxing is a problem not just for the shopping center owners, but for the tenants as well. Most leases are triple-net, which means that taxes are passed through to tenants, so a lower tax will benefit the tenant in the end, Sullivan says. "Tenants need someone to be aggressive for them to keep those triple nets down," she said.

This can also be problem with competitive shopping centers. Consider two similar shopping centers across the street from each other, each with the same type of vacancy. One center is valued at $100 per square foot, and the other at $130 per square foot. Because of triple net, tenants will be enticed to the center taxed at the lower rate, because all things considered, the expense of leasing will be lower.

An assessor equipped with nothing more than the cost approach will find it difficult to quantify value losses without going through a detailed income approach, something that assessor is going to lack the time to do. Most appeals processes will recognize this and adjust accordingly.

In Michigan when an appeal is filed, the parties generally get together and discuss the specifics, and usually the matter is resolved without a hearing or trial, says Shapiro. "We have handled many shopping center appeals, and in recent years we have not gone to trial on a shopping center. Some get resolved while preparing for trial, and some get resolved when a formal, independent appraisal is submitted.

"Not every place is so easy. In Ohio and Pennsylvania third parties such as school systems have joined the fray: fighting to keep assessments high because so much funding comes from levies. Lower assessments mean less revenue for the school districts. "In the event, you are able to convince the assessor to reduce taxes based on, say, half the leased space used," said Jennings. "The school districts in Ohio and Pennsylvania can come in and file their own tax appeal to raise the value of a given property." Landlords must diligently review property taxes yearly, looking at assessments based on current marketplace ' conditions, Shapiro says. "My clients are fighting assessments," he said, "because assessors were ignoring the function obsolescence of their properties, which in some cases meant a 50 percent reduction in value."

DarleneSullivan140 Darlene Sullivan is a partner with the Austin law firm of Popp, Gray & Hutcheson LLP, the Texas member of the American Property Tax Counsel (APTC). She can be reached at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..

Paul Steve

Stephen H. Paul is a partner in the Indianapolis office of Faegre Baker Daniels, the Indiana member of American Property Tax Counsel, the national affiliation of property tax attorneys. He can be reached at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..

kjennings

Kieran Jennings is a partner with the law firm of Siegel & Jennings, which focuses its practice on property tax disputes and is the Ohio and Western Pennsylvania member of American Property Tax Counsel, the national affiliation of property tax attorneys. He can be reached at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..

 

 

shaprio150

Michael Shapiro chairs the tax appeals practice group at Michigan law firm Honigman Miller Schwartz and Cohn LLP. The firm is the Michigan member of American Property Tax Counsel, the national affiliation of property tax attorneys. He can be reached at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..

 

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May
05

A Growing Dilemma Over Tax Abatements

"States struggle to keep economic development incentives viable amid budget tightening...."

By Darlene Sullivan, Esq., CMI., as published by National Real Estate Investor, May 2011

Policy makers have long used property tax abatements and incentives to draw investment, rehabilitation and other economic development to particular locations. While the economic effects of abatements and incentives are typically positive, officials facing budget deficits at state and local levels have begun to look for ways to hold onto more of their potential tax revenues while still enticing new business and development.

It is a difficult balancing act for lawmakers, and the changes they seek vary by state. For property owners and developers considering construction, expansion, or renovation of a new facility, now is the time to study any proposed changes to incentive rules and to ensure compliance with existing incentive agreements.

In Texas, state legislators are considering revisions to several economic development incentives the state has successfully used to attract new companies. Lee Higgins, president of Austin-based Business Economic Incentives LLC, fears that a major overhaul of business incentives offered by the state would slow economic growth in the state.

DSullican_graph

Smaller steps

To counterbalance a potential slowdown in economic growth in North Carolina, state officials are working to find ways to support projects that would not have qualified for state or local government support before the economic downturn.

For instance, in better times, companies typically would have to create 50 to 100 jobs and commit to invest $2 million to $5 million in capital expenditures before a state or local agency would show much interest in supporting a project.

Now, a company can create as few as 20 new jobs and spend less than $1 million on capital improvements and still gain the support of local government.

In addition, economic development officials in North Carolina have shown flexibility and a willingness to discuss support for projects that entice existing employers to remain in the region, especially as companies are in the process of consolidating operations across the U.S.

In North Carolina, Gov. Bev Purdue schedules public announcements when companies add as few as 15 new jobs to show her commitment to economic development, says Craig Fisher, managing member in the Charlotte, N.C. office of Tax Incentives Consultants LLC.

Many state and local economic development officials are working with companies struggling to meet job creation numbers agreed to before the slump.

Flexible programs

In the Northeast, the economic downturn has limited the amount of incentives that states can offer, but government officials have been granted freedom to exercise more creativity with programs that promote economic development.

In Massachusetts, the Economic Development Incentive Program offers a negotiated state investment tax credit and municipal tax increment financing. Once highly utilized, the program has been capped at $25 million annually as of Jan. 1, 2010.

Massachusetts has increased flexibility for the investment tax credit to equal as much as 10% of construction and start-up costs for projects in locations designated for economic development. In areas of Massachusetts not designated as economic target areas, a project that creates 100 or more jobs also is eligible to receive a 10% investment tax credit.

Scot Butcher, managing member in the Boston office of Tax Incentives Consultants LLC, says the tax credit amount may be taken as credit against future taxes or collected as a refund. The tax credit can run as high as 40% for some manufacturing projects.

The trends in Texas, Massachusetts and North Carolina signify that tax abatements and incentives are still available to property owners. To take advantage of abatement laws in their region, owners need to understand the laws governing them and stay abreast of the changes that have occurred in these laws.

DarleneSullivan140

Darlene Sullivan is a partner with the Austin law firm of Popp, Gray & Hutcheson LLP, the Texas member of the American Property Tax Counsel (APTC). She can be reached at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..

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Oct
31

Property Tax Reform Goes Awry

Caps on property value cause unfair taxation.

"In economic downturns, like today, the amount of state and federal money available to local areas declines, while state and federal mandates increase the need for more funding..."

By Darlene Sullivan, Esq., as published by National Real Estate Investor, October 2009

At first blush, it appears that a cap on property tax values, often called appraisal or assessment caps, provides a panacea for limiting increasing property taxes. However, a closer look reveals that artificial caps precipitate other larger, more far-reaching problems, rather than producing a solution for rising property taxes.

The popular answer to the call for property tax relief continues to be a "cap" or limitation on increases on taxable value. Consider the effect of a property tax cap on two identical office buildings.

With no cap on taxable value, a building valued at $1 million sustains valuation growth at the rate the market increases, in this example, 10% annually. A cap on taxable value of 3% limits the rise of taxable value. Thus, the non-capped building's valuation skyrockets from a $1 million to over $1.6 million in five years, while the capped property's valuation grows to only about $1.16 million over the same period.

Illustrating the point

The [enclosed] chart demonstrates the difference in taxes paid by identical buildings, one with a tax cap, the other without.

Sullivanl_PropertyTaxReformGRAPH_NREI_October09

DRAMATIC EFFECT OF ASSESSMENT CAPS
Because non—capped property values increase at a faster rate than capped values, the non-capped property's taxes grow exponentially over time. This chart highlights the difference over time on two buildings initially valued at $1 million.

To appease voters, some states place a cap on residential property only. This results in commercial property paying higher taxes over time and paying a greater percentage of all property taxes than before the cap was established.

Let's suppose that before the cap was instituted, the commercial property sector paid 60% of all property taxes, while the residential sector paid 40%. The residential cap causes a reduction in the total amount of revenue collected from property taxes. To offset the revenue loss, the tax authority raises tax rates.

Since residential properties valuations are capped, commercial property now has a higher tax rate on its ever-increasing valuation. Thus, the commercial and residential sectors trade places, with commercial now paying 65% of all property taxes compared with residential's 35%.

The residential cap, in effect, lets residential property owners pay taxes on less than the full market value of their property, while commercial owners pay based on full market value.

Still more pitfalls

Appraisal caps also lead to other negative effects. Like all artificial limits, a cap creates artificial and unfair competitive advantages. Properties receiving no value caps, such as those newly built, purchased or remodeled, will have an economic disadvantage when compared to competing properties that benefit from the cap.

Suppose a newly purchased office building is assessed by market value when purchased. Also assume that other like-kind office buildings, not newly built, purchased or remodeled, have capped valuations. The owners of these like-kind properties, who enjoy assessment caps, have lower property taxes than the owners of newly purchased buildings and, as a result, can charge lower rents.

In addition, caps don't typically apply to personal property in manufacturing plants, refineries, chemical plants and utilities. The real property cap shifts the tax burden to personal property because local governments will raise tax rates to balance the budget shortfall caused by the real property cap.

That means increased taxes for personal property owners, since their tax assessment is based on full market value and they will be charged a higher tax rate on that value.

A cap also impairs local governments' ability to provide critical services. In economic downturns, like today, the amount of state and federal money available to local areas declines, while state and federal mandates increase the need for more funding.

Thus, local fees and charges for municipal services increase but can't compensate for the lost tax collections resulting from caps, inhibiting infrastructure development. Artificial limits on property valuations produce a myriad of unintended negative consequences. Beware the so-called gift of property tax caps.

DarleneSullivan140Darlene Sullivan is a partner in the Austin-based law firm Popp, Gray & Hutcheson, the Texas member of American Property Tax Counsel. She can be reached at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..

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May
05

Retail Landlords Face Quandary

Even as store sales decline, their property taxes climb

"Doing this math gives owners a powerful tool to help determine if tenants are paying rents above, at, or below sustainable market levels."

By Darlene Sullivan, Esq. as published by National Real Estate Investor, May 2009

Current market conditions have led to tenant bankruptcies, store closings, vacancies, deals placed on hold and declining sales in many retail centers in the U.S. Given these pressures, it should be easy to argue that property values have declined. But how do you prove to the assessor that your property has hit a slump in value when the property's trailing performance does not reflect current fair market value?

A tenant's retail sales are commonly reported to landlords and provide a tool to measure the viability of a tenant and the center in which the store is located. But just showing a drop in tenant sales may not provide enough evidence to convince the tax assessor to lower a center's taxable value.

The taxpayer must be able to demonstrate in actual numbers the relationship between market rents the center can charge and the retail sales performance of the center's tenants. By taking this approach, an owner can empirically show the current rents that should be applied to the assessor's valuation analysis.

Are rents too high?

Occupancy cost is the term used to describe rent plus expenses that retail tenants pay to their landlords for maintenance of the common area, utilities, taxes and other costs. Tenant occupancy cost ratios are calculated by dividing the tenant's total occupancy costs by the tenant's total sales.

Occupancy cost ratios vary for each property type and merchandising category. Large national discounters have occupancy-cost ratios as low as 1.5%. High-margin retailers, such as jewelry stores in regional malls, can have ratios in excess of 20%.

Median occupancy costs at U.S. neighborhood centers are 8% to 9% of sales, while U.S. regional malls typically range between 9% and 16% of sales. A good rule of thumb is the higher the retailer's markup, the higher percentage of occupancy costs they can afford.

Doing this math gives owners a powerful tool to help determine if tenants are paying rents above, at, or below sustainable market levels.

During a downturn, it is imperative that an owner demonstrate the effects of sales on the value of the property. Ultimately, the amount of rent a retailer will pay for a space is related to its ability to generate sales and maintain healthy profit margins.

A drop in sales, an increase in operating costs, or both, may push the cost of occupancy to an unsustainable level. If a retailer has a relatively high occupancy cost ratio compared to market norms, it signifies that the landlord may have to reduce the rent or risk losing the tenant.

To show the assessor the impact of declining sales on property values, retail centers owners should project annual sales per square foot for each tenant and apply the appropriate occupancy- cost ratio to the annual sales figure.

Illustrating through numbers

Assume that a tenant's sales during the height of the market were $500 per sq. ft., and now those annual sales figures have dropped to $350 per sq. ft. An analysis of industry statistics determines that the average market occupancy cost ratio is 8% for this tenant's merchandising category and the type of center.

Applying the 8% occupancy cost ratio to the booming market sales figure of $500 per sq. ft. indicates that this tenant can be profitable at an occupancy cost of $40 per sq. ft. To illustrate to the assessor the correctness of an owner's claim concerning her property value, the same 8% occupancy cost ratio must be used. The 8% is multiplied by today's annual sales of $350 per sq. ft., producing a new sustainable market occupancy cost for this tenant of $28 per sq. ft., as shown in the accompanying chart.

For the retailer to maintain acceptable profitability margins, the total occupancy costs —rent plus expenses— must be reduced by $12 per sq. ft. This decrease in sustainable occupancy cost provides support for the determination of market rent, which should be utilized by the assessor to value the property for tax purposes.

Shopping center owners should always ensure that the rent used by the assessor in calculating the center's tax assessment is an amount that allows tenants to operate profitably in whatever the existing market environment may be.

Sullivan_NREIInvestor

THE SPIRALING EFFECT OF DECLINING RETAIL SALES
As retail sales fall, tenant's occupancy cost as a percentage of sales goes up. If a tenant's sales were to decline from $500 to $350 per sq. ft., the rent would fall from $40 to $28 per sq. ft. to maintain an 8% occupancy cost radio. The property value should also drop.

Source: American Property Tax Counsel

 

 

 

DarleneSullivan140Darlene Sullivan is a partner with the Austin law firm of Popp, Gray & Hutcheson LLP, the Texas member of the American Property Tax Counsel. She can be reached at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..

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American Property Tax Counsel

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