Property Tax Resources


Multifamily Assets Suffer Excessive Property Taxation

Here are some property tax strategies owners can use in the rebounding apartment sector.

Multifamily construction and renovations are enjoying a resurgence after taking a pause during the pandemic. And with residential, apartment-style rental units back in vogue with renters and investors, developers are even converting underutilized office buildings and shopping malls into multifamily housing.

As developers step up construction spending to tempt renters with an assortment of amenities, tax assessors are having a field day, tabulating costs on renovations and new projects that they are using to justify ever-larger assessments of taxable value across the sector. Multifamily owners must look out for themselves to guard against unfair, blanket assessment increases founded on these gross generalizations about the industry.

New offerings, New Renters

The target demographics for today's projects include young professionals not yet equipped to buy their own homes; middle-aged, single-family homeowners looking for a more carefree housing option; and aging individuals looking to downsize and become part of a seniors community.

Apartment models have evolved to better suit today's renters. Gone are the cookie-cutter, brick-and-mortar, garden style structures with minimal common areas. New apartment communities are more often high-end projects boasting pools, gyms, lush landscaping, retail shops and other non-traditional apartment features.

The added expense to deliver amenity-rich apartments is only one of many rising costs for multifamily developers and owners. Supply chain breakdowns, material shortages, rising interest rates on commercial mortgages, governmental bureaucracy, and increased inflation have forced owners of apartments and other commercial buildings to search for avenues to reduce their costs. While costs associated with owning and maintaining apartment buildings are trending higher, real property taxes remain one of the largest expenses, warranting an annual review and challenge.

Fortunately, in ad valorem jurisdictions where a property's tax assessment is tied to its market value, the law allows taxpayers to appeal assessments and seek relief from onerous real estate taxes. The process involves the filing of an annual administrative grievance followed by a judicial action against the tax-assessing entity.

The Protest Process

In tax appeal proceedings, the aggrieved party or petitioner bears the initial burden of proof. Assessments are presumptively valid, so it is up to the taxpayer to provide substantial evidence that calls into question the assessment's correctness. Taxpayers often meet this minimum standard by submitting a qualified appraisal.

In a court setting, once the presumption of validity is rebutted, the judge must determine by a preponderance of the evidence whether the property was overvalued. However, most tax assessment cases reach a resolution through negotiation and settlement without the need for a formal expert report or judicial oversight. A tax advisor skilled in real property tax assessment challenges is more often than not all the taxpayer requires.

The three traditional approaches to real property valuation in a tax appeal are the income capitalization, comparable sales, and cost approaches. Absent a recent arm's-length sale of the subject property, appraisal professionals, practitioners, and the courts generally regard income capitalization as the preferred method to value income-producing properties.

In utilizing the income approach, a taxpayer's team is seeking to value the property based on its net-income-generating potential. In other words, what would a buyer pay on the valuation date for the future income stream?

Point-by-Point Analysis

There are several steps to properly arrive at a value conclusion through the income approach. Understanding and following the steps will not only inform the property owner's valuation, but also provides a checklist to review and question calculations in the assessor's conclusion.

To calculate potential gross income, it is important to analyze the subject property's actual rental data and test it against market rents to reflect the property's economics. Similarly, the assessor or appraiser must gather, review and analyze occupancy and collection data. The appraiser will need to deduct for vacancy and collection loss because many buildings are seldom at 100 percent occupancy, and some tenants may be behind in their rent payments.

The same process is applied to real estate-related expenses such as insurance, utilities, and replacement reserves. These should be deducted to arrive at a net operating income before the deduction of real estate taxes.

In analyzing data for a tax assessment challenge involving income-producing property, real estate taxes are not accounted for at this stage because this is the expense in question. In addition, since the property tax expense is a percentage of market value, it is accounted for in the capitalization rate along with an appropriate rate of return reflecting the risk of investment.

Appeal prospects

How can the taxpayer gauge a tax appeal's likelihood of success? Among other things, consider the size of the rental units, location, competition, and parking to form a reliable value opinion. Give special attention to the tax system in the state and local jurisdiction where the property is located to ensure the taxpayer meets all statutory filing requirements and deadlines. If a challenge is not timely and properly commenced, the aggrieved party will lose its right to real property tax relief for that tax year.

Given the complexity of commercial property valuations and the nuances involved in disputing the correctness of valuation calculations, savvy apartment building owners may benefit by discussing their property's economics with a specialist in real property tax assessment review challenges. 

Jason M. Penighetti and Carol Rizzo are partners at the Uniondale, N.Y. office of law firm Forchelli Deegan Terrana, the New York State member of American Property Tax Counsel, the national affiliation of property tax attorneys
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Reject Tax Assessors’ Finance-Industry Valuations

Appraisals designed for lenders often inflate assessments of seniors living real estate for property taxation.

Appraisal methodologies for financing seniors housing properties factor in more than real estate to produce amounts that exceed property-only value. That means seniors housing owners may be paying real estate taxes on non-real-estate assets.

Everyone can agree that a seniors living operation—whether independent living, assisted living, memory care, skilled nursing or some combination—consists of a variety of assets. There are real estate assets (the land and building), personal property assets like furniture and kitchen equipment, and intangible business assets such as the work force, tenants, and operating licenses. These multiple assets and asset types present a challenge when developing an appropriate ad valorem tax valuation.

To appropriately value this asset type for property taxation, an owner must show the assessor the real estate's stand-alone value. Most states acknowledge that business assets are not subject to property tax, so the intangible business assets and their respective values must be identified and excluded.

The International Association of Assessing Officers, in its guide, "Understanding Intangible Assets and Real Estate: A Guide for Real Property Valuation Professionals," has developed a four-part test to help determine whether something intangible rises to the level of an asset. The IAAO test is as follows:

1. An intangible asset should be identifiable.

2. An intangible asset should have evidence of legal ownership, that is, documents that substantiate rights.

3. An intangible asset should be capable of being separate and divisible from the real estate.

4. An intangible asset should be legally transferrable.

The Appraisal Institute's current, 15th edition of "The Appraisal of Real Estate" recognizes the valuation methodology of separating the components of assets in a business or real estate transaction. Potential intangible business assets identified in the text include contracts for healthcare service, contracts for meals, and contracts for laundry assistance, all of which represent income streams or businesses. An assembled workforce is an intangible business asset with a quantifiable value. How long would it take an operator to staff-up a property prior to opening? What are the carrying costs during that time?

Many seniors housing owners and investors feel that the entire value associated with seniors living real estate is attributable to the business. While this may be a firm belief, the real estate must have some value. For fair taxation, the taxpayer must differentiate and value both the tangible and intangible components of the asset.

Multifamily comparisons

For 30 years, Ohio law has permitted appraisers to reference data obtained from traditional multifamily properties to value just the real estate in seniors housing. The theory has been that traditional apartments are primarily real estate and lack much of the associated business value that comes with seniors living assets. Therefore, an appraiser who takes the gross building area of a seniors living property can select, analyze, adjust, and apply multifamily data to determine fair market value.

This approach presents at least two issues. One, seniors living designs differ from traditional apartments. For instance, seniors living units are typically smaller, lack full kitchens, and require wider hallways to accommodate wheelchairs. Two, the multifamily market has generally prospered in recent years while seniors living properties have struggled to recover from pandemic-related losses.

This means Ohio appraisers are comparing seniors living properties to multifamily assets selling at higher and higher dollars per unit. Multifamily properties generally experience lower vacancy, credit loss, expenses and capitalization rates than do seniors housing assets. In short, these two product types often move in opposite market directions.

Difficulties with financing data

More and more, county assessors and school board attorneys throughout Ohio rely on appraisers who value seniors living properties as if done for lending purposes. While these going-concern valuations may satisfy lenders' needs, these same techniques are not reliable or accurate enough to support a state's constitutionally protected valuation and assessment process.

Going concern appraisal reports back into a real estate value. After first developing a total value for all assets present, the appraiser attempts to extract the business value.

There are several techniques routinely used in appraisals for financing that are inappropriate for determining taxable value. These include the lease fee coverage ratio approach, a management fee capitalization approach, and the cost residual approach. These appraisal techniques have been approved by banks, but they are largely untested in courts.

These approaches are tainted from the start because they look first to the total going concern value. That inherently requires an evaluation of business income, which should not be considered when determining a fee simple value of the real property.

Of the going concern methodologies, the cost residual method appears best suited to assess taxable property value. However, challenges and subjectivity abound when identifying and determining all aspects of depreciation that may impact market acceptance of the real estate asset, especially for an older property.

Starting with the business is problematic given the dollars involved in seniors housing resident services. Median asking rent for a conventional apartment was $1,000 per month in the Federal Reserve's 2022 Survey of Household Economics and Decision Making. By comparison, the median monthly rate for assisted living is $4,000, according to the American Health Care Association/National Center for Assisted Living. Importantly, that $4,000 excludes fees for additional services like medication management and bathing assistance.

Service fees constitute significant revenue in most seniors housing operations. A 2019 CBRE Senior Housing Market Insight report found that 65% of the revenue in assisted living properties comes from services provided above and beyond pure rent. The 2023 JLL Valuation Index Survey found that the average "Majority Assisted Living" asset class saw an expense ratio of 71%.

Owners and appraisers must closely examine operating statements to develop and support their opinions of value. Appraisers should consider looking at properties as having multiple income streams to verify whether their opinion of value for the real estate is reasonable and supportable. Operators and investors should be open and honest about return expectations.

Because the income generated by intangible business assets at seniors living properties are taxed in other ways, assessors must continue to carefully review seniors living real estate to ensure fair taxation. 

Steve Nowak, Esq. is a partner in the law firm Siegel Jennings Co. L.P.A., the Ohio, Illinois and Western Pennsylvania member of American Property Tax Counsel, the national affiliation of property tax attorneys.
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3 Keys to Appealing an Unfair Assessment

Spencer Fane's Michael Miller on the critical steps for finding tax relief.

This is a challenging time in the property tax world. Pandemic-era federal assistance programs have dried up, increasing communities' appetite for tax dollars to deal with crime, homelessness, transportation and other issues. Recognizing that inflation has put taxpayers under pressure, governments may offer tax relief to homeowners, their voters, but not to the commercial property owner.

In Colorado, a November ballot issue would reduce the valuation of a residential property by $40,000 and of a commercial property by $50,000. This will be little help to an owner of a $2 million commercial property.

Relief for the commercial property owner must instead come from a deep dive into the assessor's valuation, best performed by the property owner and an experienced property tax professional working as a team. What follows are key stages for preparing an appeal.

1. Understand and observe all filing deadlines.

Every state has a deadline for starting the appeal process. If a taxpayer misses that deadline, they lose the right to appeal. In some states, after paying their tax, a taxpayer might be allowed to file for an abatement sometime later.

It is important to provide the property tax professional with relevant information in sufficient time to analyze it before filing the appeal. This is a challenge in many cases, such as when the taxpayer receiving tax notices is out of state and their advisor is local. Contacting the advisor before tax notices go out can provide a head start, often enabling the advisor to find the property's taxable value before the notice arrives.

2. Critically analyze the assessment basis.

By itself, a substantial value increase does not qualify as a reason to appeal. Often, the assessor will justify the increase based on the general market strength shown in substantially rising prices. The taxpayer must ask, is this for the entire county, or for this specific type of property in this specific location?

A recent example illustrates how assessors' generalizations can overstate an individual property's value change. As our firm appealed a client's assessment in an expensive resort area, the local newspaper quoted the assessor stating that prices had increased 50% or even more. Available sales of comparable properties all occurred at least a year prior to the valuation period, while one was near the valuation period.

The assessor trended the earlier sales to the valuation period by making a 50% adjustment to each sales price. However, our team compared the most recent year-ago sale with the current sale of a comparable property in the same location, showing that the price per square foot only went up 14%. It was clear the 50% increase was a mass appraisal number covering the entire county, while prices in the subject property's submarket increased at a much slower pace. This deep dive yielded results in the appeal.

3. Analyze the assessor's comparable sales.

Most jurisdictions require assessors to value the fee simple estate, the real estate alone. Assessors have attempted to debate what this means, but what it clearly does not mean is a sale price based upon the income generated by a lease. Nor can the taxable value be based on the success of the business operated from the property.

Simply stated, fee simple value must be limited to the real estate, not the business. When applying this to an owner-occupied property, this means a fee-simple buyer would be purchasing a vacant property. Value is based on the price at which a willing buyer would buy, and a willing seller would sell, the property. And in the sale of an owner-occupied property, there is no lease.

Often in this situation, the assessor will nevertheless use the sale of a leased property as a comparable. It is not comparable, because the buyer is buying the income stream from the lease, not just the bricks and mortar. Moreover, the rent seldom reflects current market rent. Possibly the lease was signed when rents were higher than today, the lease escalated rents automatically, or the landlord agreed to build the property according to the tenant's specifications and increased the rent by the amortized cost. Every lease is unique. The sale of a leased property is simply not the same as the sale of a property without a lease.

While examining income properties within the assessor's comparable sales, be sure to analyze the income's source. Taxable values of income-producing properties are based on income derived from the real estate and not income derived from other sources.

A hotel buyer, for example, is buying not only the bricks and mortar, but also the flag or brand, and the hotel's reputation. These are intangibles included in the acquisition price. However, intangible value is not subject to a property tax.

Another example of this concept is seniors housing. Seniors housing has numerous profit centers beyond rent for the room. It may have a beauty shop, a physical therapy center, a recreation facility such as a bowling alley, special medical services and many other offerings. The resident pays rent, but also pays extra for the many services. For property tax purposes, the income used to determine value must be separated between business cashflow and income generated from the real estate.

Property tax in the current environment can indeed present a challenge, but it need not be overwhelming. The taxpayer must analyze the assessor's value in depth to find factors that would result in a successful appeal. It may start with sticker shock over the assessor's notice, but an experienced tax professional's analysis can level the playing field between the assessor aggressively pursuing increased funding and the property tax owner looking for tax relief.

Michael Miller is Of Counsel in the Denver office of Spencer Fane, the Colorado member of American Property Tax Counsel, the national affiliation of property tax attorneys.
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Drew Raines: How to Reduce Student Housing Property Tax Assessments Post-Pandemic

Not long ago, assessors' student housing properties valuations generally struggled keeping pace with the rising market.College enrollment was high, rent growth outpaced expenses and student expectations lined up with most newer facility amenities. However, the COVID-19 pandemic and its fallout changed the game.

Property taxes are often the single highest expense on a property's profit and loss statement. When market changes make student housing less profitable, the tax burden should not be allowed to remain high. When this occurs, the assessor's property valuation needs to be challenged and reduced.

Projecting Income:Look Forward, Not Back

Many jurisdictions assess student housing properties' value using a cost approach.A computer system estimates the cost to build the property new, then deducts physical depreciation based on the property's age. Due to skyrocketing construction costs, those depreciation deductions are outpaced by base cost increases. It is common to see cost-based values increase despite struggles facing the real estate market. Owners can combat increases by appealing the assessor's value.

When a student housing property owner files an assessment appeal, the appeal review board often evaluates the three prior years' operating income. This allows the appeal board to develop an income model intended to represent stabilized operations. Then the net income is capitalized, producing an estimated market value. When the market rises and rent increases, looking at the past three year's performance is probably a favorable method for taxpayers. However, in a flat or falling market, determining value based on past success proves unfair. Property values' steady upward trajectory, by and large, has stalled out given the gut-punch of 2022 interest rate hikes. Capitalization rates have risen along with the interest rates, though it becomes difficult to see clearly because sales transaction volume slowed to a trickle. Sellers would rather sit on their property than swallow the loss the current market forced on them.

For student housing specifically, it is not uncommon for brokers to cite 15% to 20% market value declines from early 2022 to early 2023. In addition to general market woes, some developers expect college enrollment to drop in the near future due, in part, to fewer students graduating from high school.This will make leasing more difficult and put downward pressure on rents and occupancy. Falling rental income should be taken into consideration by the board or tribunal hearing a property tax appeal.

Projecting Expenses: The Compounding Costs of COVID

Waves of new development during the late 1990's and mid-2010's saw student housing units grow exponentially.At the time, they were state-of-the-art facilities with all the amenities a student could desire. For some, common areas evolved from utilitarian waiting rooms to shared workspaces or workout gyms.For others, bathrooms were no longer shared with a full suite, but only a single roommate.

When the property's design fails to meet changing tenant expectations, that produces functional obsolescence. Many boom-time properties now suffer functional obsolescence.Worrisome trends that predated COVID-19 have been fast-tracked by the pandemic, becoming major problems.

Most people, including future college students, were quarantined for months and developed new tastes and behaviors. Student tenants are not as tolerant of sharing a bathroom with a roommate. One-to-one bathrooms are no longer a luxury in most markets, but trying to retro-fit a property to achieve the best bed-to-bath ratio often fails the cost-benefit analysis. When a design deficiency can't feasibly be corrected, it is known as incurable functional obsolescence.

Online shopping became a near-necessity during quarantine, reshaping our consumer habits long-term. When a building full of button-clicking students receives more Amazon boxes than envelopes, there better be package lockers or another delivery management system to handle the volume. Maybe some unutilized common area space presents an easy opportunity to convert, making this type of obsolescence curable. Even so, the cure does not come without landlord expense.

Not all new expenses involve obsolete building design. New cleaning protocols originated during the pandemic but have not receded with the COVID case count. The "janitorial" line item has swollen, further narrowing landlord margins.

Even if the building is clean, it may not be tidy. Kids who were forced to stay home for meals tend not to go out as frequently. They order-in, and they party-in, too. That creates a lot of trash. Kids do not appreciate having to haul trash down a flight of stairs or ride with it down an elevator. Trash chutes appease them, but not if the building doesn't have one.

Rising operating costs are not all associated with COVID. For example, HVAC systems that use a coolant being phased out by new regulations will have to be upgraded to comply. Also, insurance, payroll, and other outside service costs have increased with general inflation.

Increasing operating expenses drive down a property's net income and should be accounted for by tax appeal decision-makers.

Question the Assessor's Valuation

When property owners appeal their assessment based on a drop in income, "bad management" becomes the common refrain heard from assessors. This implies the property is worth more than the income indicates, because it has been poorly operated. Sometimes this is true, but if a property suffers lackluster performance caused by unavoidable market changes, the assessment should account for that. Taxpayers would be wise to seek seasoned property tax counsel for advice as to what relief may be available.

Drew Raines is a shareholder in the Memphis law firm of Evans Petree, PC, the Arkansas and Tennessee member of American Property Tax Counsel, the national affiliation of property tax attorneys.
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What’s the Right Property Tax Valuation Approach for Industrial Real Estate?

The wrong method could leave owners with bigger bills than they should have.

Because industrial properties vary in design and function, not all valuation methods approaches apply to every property. When assessors choose an unsuitable method that inflates taxable value, the taxpayer's best appeal strategy may be to show flaws in the appraiser's approach by explaining the appropriate appraisal methodology.

Industrial properties are typically designed for a specific owner's use in manufacturing, distribution, research and development, or heavy industrial activities. These include standalone flex buildings, multiuse industrial complexes, high-tech facilities, steel mills, timber mills and other subtypes.

The basic valuation premise for property taxation is to determine what the property would sell for in an open-market transaction between a willing seller and willing buyer. Most buyers and sellers in the industrial market would have a thorough understanding of a property's best use before transacting a sale, but an assessor with a limited perspective may treat all industrial real estate as having uniform valuation characteristics.

Taxing authorities often overlook appraisal principles, that if properly applied would reduce the market value of industrial properties. Taxpayers should review their assessments to determine the assessor's valuation approach and evaluate if the appropriate input data was used and the calculations reflect the appropriate adjustments to value.

The appraiser must consider the highest and best use of the property when selecting the appropriate valuation method, considering what is legally and physically permissible and financially feasible for the property as of the valuation date. They will use one of three primary appraisal methods, which are the cost approach, sales-comparison approach, and income-capitalization approach.

Cost Approach

The cost approach is based on theory of substitution, would a prospective purchaser buy this property at a depreciated value or simply build a new facility? Using this approach, an appraiser determines the cost to build a new facility less all forms of depreciation.

A willing buyer would consider not only physical depreciation, but the property's functional operation and any external forces limiting its use. External or economic obsolescence are forces outside the property owner's control, such as government restrictions, consumer demand, or the availability of a raw product or steady labor force.

Functional obsolescence is value loss due to physical or functional deficiencies, such as an outdated building design, inefficient production layout, inadequate infrastructure or outdated equipment.

Most assessor cost models stop at physical depreciation and ignore external and functional obsolescence. They simply add up the component costs of the building, land, and equipment.

This typical cost model fails the "willing seller and willing buyer" test because a potential buyer is not going to evaluate a manufacturing facility by tallying the value of the property's components. A buyer will focus on output capacity, available raw product, available labor, and the market for the product. How many widgets can the facility produce as of the assessment date, and at what cost?

Thus, the often-missed analysis in the cost approach is to really look at theory of substitution. Would a new facility with new equipment and a better layout have higher production capacity? An appraiser should not simply reproduce the same equipment for the cost model if modern equipment offers benefits such as reduced labor, higher speed, or increased output. The appraiser must know the industry and the equipment capabilities of both the older, existing equipment and the new, technically advanced equipment.

Comparing apples to apples in the cost model seldom provides a reliable value. An example would be a plywood and veneer mill built in the 1960s that an assessor values by counting costs invested in the various add-ons and rebuilding of equipment. Simply trending the values would not capture rebuilt equipment or used-equipment purchases, overvaluing the equipment.

The appraiser should determine the cost for the widget capacity of the present facility as of the date of value and compare that to how many widgets a new facility could produce and at what cost. Next, the appraiser should consider all three forms of depreciation to arrive at the proper taxable valuation. Omitting these steps in the cost approach will overvalue the property and overtax the owner.

Sales-Comparison Approach

The sales-comparison approach compares the subject property with property that is similar to the subject. Appraisers often use this approach for single-use real estate with a high degree of market transferability such as warehouses and distribution centers. The appraiser must consider not just the comparable property's floor plate, type of construction and square footage, but also its location, market access and number of loading docks.

The sales comparison model is difficult to use for properties that lack a ready market or that suffer from external or functional obsolescence. Consider the research and development campuses built in the 1980s to house all a company's processes, from research to manufacturing and distribution. Most manufacturing and distribution moved overseas in the 2000s, leaving these campuses half empty.

Adapting these buildings for reuse depends on land-use restrictions, the market for alternative uses, available labor, and the functionality and cost feasibility of conversion. When searching for comparable sales, the appraiser should evaluate what is legally permissible and financially feasible and weigh external forces that impact demand and functional use. After selecting like-kind properties, the appraiser must adjust the sales to reflect the reality of the subject property, or it will be over-valued.

Income- Capitalization Approach

The income-capitalization approach estimates a property's value based on the income it generates, using a capitalization rate from comparable sales or market data. This approach is used for properties with long-term tenants or stable cash flows. The appraiser is to look not at what the value is to the owner, but at what a willing buyer would pay for the property. This requires carefully selected market data and proper adjustment to reflect market value.

Clearly, appraising industrial properties requires a thorough understanding of their unique characteristics and uses, as well as an awareness of economic and functional obsolescence. A knowledgeable appraiser can help the taxpayer ensure their property assessment is consistent with the marketplace to avoid overpaying property taxes. 

Cynthia Fraser is Co-Chair of Foster Garvey's Litigation Practice and the Oregon Representative of American Property Tax Counsel (APTC). The firm is the Oregon member of APTC, the national affiliation of property tax attorneys. Lisa Laubacher is a CMI and Director at Popp Hutcheson PLLC, the Texas member of APTC.

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Taxpayers Can Negotiate Reductions of their Excessive Property Taxes

Here are the steps to start an informal discussion with the assessor that may lead to a tax reduction.

Owners of large commercial real estate portfolios typically have internal staff to deal with assessed property values and the resultant taxes on a regular basis. But what about owners of small or medium-value properties?

How can a taxpayer, without knowledgeable staff or outside assistance, determine whether their assessment is fair or if they should seek an adjustment? And if seeking a reduction seems appropriate, going it alone through discussion with the Assessor may be productive.

Any such informal review or discussion should be the result of careful consideration and preparation. The following points are essential in that review and will help the taxpayer build and present a strong case for a reduced valuation.

Getting started

A government representative, usually the county collector, issues a property tax bill based on the value the county assessor has placed on the taxpayer's real estate. The property owner may launch an appeal to contest that assessed value. However, in many states, the tax bill arrives after the due date for appealing the assessor's valuation.

Owners should review their property's assessed value each year. Begin the process as soon as the assessor posts new values to its website, usually in January. If there has been no increase, the assessor won't provide a statement of the assessed value until it is included in the tax bill sent later in the year, at which time the appeal period will have ended in most jurisdictions.

If the assessor's value opinion is less than the taxpayer believes it should be, they can simply pay the taxes due and plan to revisit the assessor's website the next year. If the assessor's opinion is approximately the same or greater than the property owner's value estimate, however, the taxpayer should investigate further and consider whether to seek a meeting with the assessor followed by an appeal.Some jurisdictions (states) have cycles of more than one year so the valuation for tax purposes may extend beyond the first year's valuation date into the following year or years.

Know dates and procedures

Missing the filing deadline is fatal to any potential relief from property tax. Most jurisdictions will notify taxpayers of an assessment increase and provide the timeline for review on appeal. Even when an assessed value is unchanged from previous years, the owner may still deem the assessment to be excessive and worth appealing.

While the owner is entitled to appeal an unchanged valuation, in most states there is no obligation for the assessor to notify the owner of altered assessed value—at least not until the time for appeal has run out.

Learn the lingo

Appraisers, assessors, attorneys, real estate brokers and other professionals dealing regularly with property tax matters frequently use words and phrases unique to the valuation of real estate. These terms and their interpretations fill volumes of legal writing and serve as linchpins in court decisions and business transactions.

Taxpayers who familiarize themselves with valuation lingo will be better prepared to discuss value with assessing officials. (For a list of key terms and definitions, see Property Tax Terms.)

Call the assessor

Most assessors or members of their staff will meet for informal discussions prior to, and sometimes during, a formal appeal. Call to request a meeting and provide the assessor with a heads-up about which property or properties will be discussed. This will save time by ensuring the assessor's team has an opportunity to review their work and supporting data for an informed discussion.

The meeting will be informal. The assessor or representative will be prepared to defend the assessed value. It is important for the taxpayer to realize that value was probably, in whole or in part, generated by a computer.

Bring relevant materials and documents in duplicate so that a set can be left with the assessor's office. They may not want to accept them but give it a try.

The informal meeting is often the property owner's first opportunity to show the property was overvalued in the assessment. The owner will need to support their proposed value using at least one of three standard approaches to valuation, which are cost, income, and sales comparison.

Of these, a non-appraiser is most likely to apply a sales comparison. While adjustments may be necessary in the application of a comparative sales calculation, it is less complex and dependent on expert analysis than either the cost or income approach. For the non-professional, the fewer adjustments required, the better.

For example, developing an informed opinion of a single-family home value based on the sale of two nearly identical homes on the same street does not present a great challenge. The further away the sales occur and the more they differ from the subject property, however, the greater the challenge and the less reliable the sales become as comparatives.(comparables is the term appraisers use)

The cost approach, unless it reflects the actual and recent construction cost plus the land value of the property in question, requires the application of factors best left to professionals in the valuation field. The income approach is even more complex, drawing a value conclusion not from actual rent at the subject property but by applying market rents to the initial rates of return that provide the basis for prices paid for acquisition of similar properties.

Like the cost approach, income-based valuation is best left to the experts. However, an owner who owns and invests in income-producing properties may very well be able to show a lower valuation using their own formulas learned through experience and practice. If such be the case, present that opinion and back-up information to the assessor.

Escalate as needed

Assuming informal discussions fail to achieve a value reduction, the taxpayer must file a timely appeal or accept the assessor's opinion. Filing requires the owner to know and conform to the prescribed filing date. The taxpayer must also decide when or if they will engage an attorney to pursue the appeal.Jurisdictions vary on the point at which an attorney is required to pursue a formal appeal.Filing dates and the required point to seek expert assistance are critical and vary by state. It is up to the taxpayer to learn these dates for their area, and to act while there is sufficient time remaining to file and win an appeal.

Property Tax Terms

A general understanding of real estate valuation terminology is intrinsic to discussions with the assessor.

Assessed Value: The taxable percentage (usually set by statute) of the assessor's opinion of fair market value.

Fair Market Value: What a willing and informed buyer would pay to a willing and informed seller. Fair market value is not value in use, sentimental value, or personal value unique to the owner.

Deferred Maintenance: The property needs a paint job, roof replacement or similar repairs, in which case the cost of correcting the deficiency is deducted from the property's value.

Obsolescence: A curable problem of which the anticipated cost to cure is deducted from the value of the property without the problem.

Incurable Obsolescence: A problem on the property that can't be cured at any cost, such as loss of parking or loss of access due to a road project.

Jerome Wallach is a partner at The Wallach Law Firm in St. Louis, the Missouri member of American Property Tax Counsel, the national affiliation of property tax attorneys
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Challenge Office Building Tax Assessments

Owners can use the hurting office market to their benefit.

It's no secret that the real estate market suffered in the COVID-19 pandemic, and no property type was hurt more than office buildings. While hospitality and entertainment properties nearly suffocated, their post-quarantine rebound has been impressive. Real estate professionals who projected multiyear recoveries for hotels and movie theaters back in 2020 and 2021 have been proven wrong. Offices, however, have not been so lucky.

The pandemic hastened a work-remote trend that was already leading office tenants to downsize their spaces, and the shift soon stifled any countervailing influx of tenants that landlords could have relied upon to stabilize their properties. Tenants have also realized that if they are using remote workers anyway, they can employ overseas workers for significantly less pay and with zero office requirements. As a result, many landlords have seen their occupancy and rents drop. Some have been able to maintain rent levels by giving away major concessions or tenant improvements. Some have not.

Falling rents and occupancy deflate property values. A trending loss in property value means it's time to review the tax assessor's value of an organization's property, and to challenge the assessment if appropriate.

Why care about the office market?

Perhaps your company owns or leases a building that it fully occupies. The difficulties of the post-COVID office market are unfortunate, but they don't impact you. Your building is full.


Most jurisdictions value the fee-simple property rights of an income-producing property. Basically, that means valuation is based on capitalization of the income stream that the property would produce if leased at market levels.

This is true for owner-occupied offices, too. If the property is leased after a build-to-suit or sale-leaseback transaction, those typically above-market rents or extended terms are irrelevant to a fee-simple analysis.

If the assessor values a property for property tax purposes based on fee-simple property rights determined using a market-derived income stream, and if current market rent levels and occupancy rates are dropping, then the property's tax assessment should be dropping, too – even if the building is full.

Inflation and interest rates

The problems specific to office buildings are not the only ones for the taxpayer to consider. Inflation has made it more expensive to do just about everything, and that includes operating an office building. Payroll, utilities, insurance: All of these costs are steadily rising, even for owner-occupied buildings.

Local governments are feeling the squeeze, too. Their budgets often depend largely on property tax revenue. When inflation reduces a budget's effectiveness, there will be pressure on the assessor to find ways to dig deep and expand the tax base.

The Federal Reserve's solution for inflation was an aggressive program of interest rate hikes over the course of 2022. The rising cost of money has a significant impact on capitalization rates, which investors and appraisers use to value a property's income stream. The higher interest rates go, the higher cap rates go. The higher cap rates go, the lower property values go.

Where are the sales?

The problem with attempting to demonstrate the impact of rising interest rates on cap rates is the sheer lack of sale transactions. Banks aren't bullish on office lending right now, and sellers would rather hang on to a struggling property than sell it for less than it would be worth if stabilized. How can a taxpayer know what kind of price an office building's income stream will bring if office buildings aren't selling?

This is where the assessors will use sales of office properties to support high values. In many markets, an office property that sold in 2021 is worth significantly less today. But today, there often aren't enough comparable office sales occurring to prove declining value. Assessors can point to the most recent office sales, albeit a few years old, and justify their value on a comparative basis.

What those older sales do not reflect is the more recent plague of dropping rents and rising vacancy. The taxpayer needs a way to discount those old sales and prove what the value is today, not three years ago.

Is it time to appeal?

Consider your office property. Could it sell today for the price it sold for two or three years ago? Probably not. Maybe the organization recently bought it, or even built it, for more than it could sell for today. This is not an uncommon problem anymore.

In many jurisdictions, the best way to challenge an office property's assessed value is by using the income approach. If the building were leased at market rent, what would that look like? If the building were occupied at current market occupancy levels, how much vacancy would there be? The taxpayer may need to talk to a broker or two to answer these questions.

The taxpayer may need help to turn market data into a viable appeal strategy. A property tax professional can prepare a fee-simple income approach and help estimate the current market value of the property. In the present situation, there is a good chance property tax relief is available, even if the office building is fully occupied.

Drew Raines is a shareholder in the Memphis law firm of Evans Petree PC, the Arkansas and Tennessee member of American Property Tax Counsel, the national affiliation of property tax attorneys.
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Being Forearmed: Information Self-Storage Owners Can Use to Combat Inflated Property-Tax Assessments

Tax assessors are quick to increase self-storage property valuations when market conditions are strong, but they're much slower to adapt to factors that negatively impact an appraisal. Here are some items to understand and present as evidence when making the case to lower your tax assessment.

Until recently, many self-storage owners had grown accustomed to strong market conditions that resulted in steady increases to their property-tax assessments. However, now that industry fundamentals have begun to cool nationwide, they're finding that assessors don't recognize a downturn in property valuation nearly as quickly. To help defend against excessive valuations, you need to educate yourself on market trends and the impact of rental rates, capitalization (cap) rates and sales transactions on facility value.

For a decade or more, the self-storage industry has seen exponential growth in demand that ushered double-digit increases in rental rates and decreases in vacancies. Tax assessors were quick to account for this growth, pushing facility valuations higher. But now the major metropolitan markets are starting to report stagnant rates and mounting vacancy. At the same time, interest rates are rising, which depresses real estate prices and property values. Assessors should—but may not—recognize these conditions when calculating a market value.

In anticipation of an assessor's unrealistic interpretation of market conditions, self-storage owners should be ready to combat inflated assessments. You can prepare by learning your local assessment date and arming yourself with market data relevant to the valuation period.

When to Press the Assessor

Assessors use various tools to determine a property's market value, but there's subjectivity in how these resources can be used. Self-storage properties are traditionally evaluated based on their income-producing potential via a pro forma. An analysis begins with a study of market rental rates, typically derived from surveys and commercial real estate publications. Assessors will then estimate potential income using financials at comparable properties, or draw quoted rental rates from a facility's website.

As a taxpayer, you should vigilantly analyze an assessor's income-based valuation, specifically regarding the initial rental rate used. Assessors often overestimate potential income based on inaccurate survey information or by applying a rental rate that's associated with an inappropriate property classification. For example, they may classify a property as "superior" based on its location or perceived quality of construction. In reality, the facility could be "average" based on the actual rents achieved.

Potential vs. effective income is an important distinction property owners should be quick to flag. Assessors often overestimate potential rent and fail to recognize a proper vacancy factor. If helpful, you can present profit-and-loss statements as well as rent rolls to provide a true understanding of your asset's actual performance in contrast to assumed figures from unreliable sources. Doing this can lead to a substantially lower income-based assessment.

The assessor's final step in an income-based valuation is to apply a cap rate to net operating income. A cap rate is the initial, annual rate of return a buyer would receive on a property's purchase price. It measures risk and is tied to market dynamics in an ever-evolving economy. The lower the cap rate applied in an income pro forma, the higher the indicated value will be.

Assessors will always err on the side of aggressiveness by choosing low cap rates from the market. In fact, they usually derive these rates from market sales and secondary surveys, using data that often goes unvetted or is simply inaccurate. You should press appraisers to show support for the cap rates they use. Scrutinize sale data and highlight differences between your facility and the property that sold.

Be prepared to combat superficial survey information with real-world examples of how rising interest rates, inflation and other economic factors increase the risk associated with acquiring a self-storage property. Perhaps the most effective strategy for achieving a reduced assessment is to fight an assessor's aggressive cap rate with data that reflects the true risk associated with your property.

Market Value and Timing

In most jurisdictions, "market value" is tied to the concept of a willing buyer and seller. Self-storage owners should be mindful of how a purchase price will affect their valuation, as assessors will always assume that purchase price equals market value. Some states mandate sale-price disclosure to the assessor's office while others abide by non-disclosure rules. Regardless, assessors will adamantly pursue a property's sale price to support a tax assessment.

The timing of the purchase is important in relation to the assessment date. For example, if the state or county valuation date is Jan. 1, a sale subsequent to that date may not influence the valuation for that assessment period. Conversely, the basis for the assessor's valuation will likely be a sale or sales that occurred prior to the assessment.

You need to remind assessors that a sale price doesn't always represent a property's true market value. Examples of this are 1031-exchange transactions or portfolio acquisitions with prices allocated to component properties.

Remember, too, that assessors are typically tasked with finding a property's fee-simple market value. Facility purchases often include business value that is intangible and not taxable to the fee-simple estate. So, be prepared to describe the nuances associated with a sale to any assessor who makes value assumptions based on recent purchase prices.

Appraisals aren't an exact science, and assessors often turn the subjectivity inherent in the valuation process to the taxpayer's detriment. Self-storage owners and investors should be vigilant in monitoring the marketplace, their property's economic performance and transactions within their jurisdiction. This will arm them with the relevant data needed to combat aggressive valuations.

Travis Williams is a Senior Property Tax Consultant at Austin, Texas, law firm Popp Hutcheson PLLC. Popp Hutcheson, which focuses its practice on property tax disputes, is the Texas member of American Property Tax Counsel, the national affiliation of property tax attorneys.
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Don’t Ignore Business Personal Property Taxes

Blas Ortiz and Andrew Albright of Popp Hutcheson PLLC offer tips for decreasing liabilities.

For property tax purposes, commercial property owners concern themselves primarily with the administrative appeals and real estate taxes, while often ignoring corresponding business personal property. By doing so, those owners forfeit many tax-saving opportunities when complying with state filing requirements for and appealing taxes on business personal property. Since the majority of states tax business personal property in some form or fashion, commercial owners should follow several tax saving tips when preparing annual compliance filings.

Conduct the personal property test

Commercial property owners must realize that personal property tax savings begin during the compliance phase when formally rendering personal property value to the local assessor. This typically starts with what is reflected on the fixed asset list. In many states, taxable personal property represents anything that's not real estate, is income-producing, and not considered intangible. Generally speaking, the primary test to determine whether an asset is personal property rests on the answer to the following question: If the asset were removed from the real estate, would the real estate be irreparably damaged? A yes answer means the asset would likely be real estate. Removing real estate line items becomes crucial. Otherwise it amounts to double taxation if an asset more appropriately characterized as real estate also gets taxed as personal property. Properly delineating each asset line item as personal property or real estate is a vital first step to lowering personal property taxes.

Classify assets properly

Taxpayers will find that proper asset classification holds another key to decreasing tax liability. Certain assets may be depreciated on shorter age-life schedules if described and classified properly when reported to the business personal property assessor. The North American Industry Classification System, along with various cost estimator and valuation services provide general classification and age-life guidance when finding acceptable depreciation schedules for a company's fixed assets. A local property assessor or state department of revenue may also provide personal property classification and depreciation schedules, though it may not always be clear how that information was derived. If applicable, include potential obsolescence factors that may affect the final opinion of value. Many states periodically audit tangible personal property returns, so be prepared to explain any deviation from the assessor's depreciation schedules and the inclusion of obsolescence or inutility factors.

Understand depreciation

Commercial owners must also keep in mind that the net book value of assets on a fixed asset list, although pertinent for accounting purposes, is not considered when calculating ad valorem property tax liability. Accounting guidelines allow for depreciating assets differently than property tax depreciation. For accounting purposes, an asset is usually depreciated at a set amount each year over the asset's total typical life until it depreciates to $0. Those items often remain on the books even if the assets have been disposed of because they no longer have accounting value and, therefore, do not impact the overall book value.

However, for property tax purposes, assets are never fully depreciated to $0 value. Instead, they are depreciated to a residual value anywhere between 5 percent to 20 percent of the original cost. That being the case, when reporting assets, the preparer may look to the local assessors' asset depreciation schedules to determine each asset's depreciated value based on the asset's current age. As a corollary to that, the preparer should also confirm whether any disposed or "ghost assets" remain on the books, and if so, remove them from the fixed asset list before rendering.

Consider intangibles

The removal of intangible property continues to be a fundamental step often overlooked when reviewing fixed asset ledgers for the purpose of filing self-reported personal property renditions and returns. In certain states, items such as software and warranties are nontaxable. While being mindful of each state's specific guidelines for intangible property, consider embedded intangibles which might be identified within an asset's total capitalized cost. Removing intangible personal property line items, in accordance with state and jurisdictional laws and guidelines, can preserve potential front-end tax savings for many years.

File properly and on-time

Knowing when to report is just as important as knowing how to report. To avoid late filing penalties, be aware of the filing requirements and methods for each specific jurisdiction, such as postmark and submission deadline rules. Be aware that many assessors and appraisal districts are shifting to electronic filing vs. traditional hard copy filing. Additionally, be certain to properly identify the property by identification number, owner name and address.

Business personal property should not be ignored when determining a company's property tax liability. Following consistent and informed methodologies when filing tangible personal property compliance can create viable tax savings opportunities year after year.

Andrew Albright
Blas Ortiz
Blas Ortiz is a director and Andrew Albright a manager at Popp Hutcheson PLLC, the Texas member of American Property Tax Counsel, the national affiliation of property tax attorneys. The firm focuses its practice on property tax disputes.
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Office-to-Residential Conversions Present Costly Problems

Developers should understand the property tax implications before attempting to repurpose buildings in downtown Washington, D.C.

With office vacancy rates in the District of Columbia at 20% and climbing, officials believe that converting office buildings to residential space is an important component of revitalizing Downtown Washington.

These complex projects pose both practical and administerial challenges, however. For developers, one important consideration of such a redevelopment is its real estate tax implications.

High hopes

District leaders announced earlier this year that they hope to add 15,000 residents to the central business district over the next five years – an ambitious goal. The hope is that bringing residents to live downtown will create a more vibrant neighborhood where people live, work, and dine.

The stark reality is that the District of Columbia has one of the lowest return-to-office rates in the country. Actual occupancy in the D.C. metro was only 43% in mid-April and drops below 25% on Fridays, according to Kastle Systems, which tracks office occupancy. Workers simply aren't returning to Downtown D.C.

While residential conversions may be one piece of the puzzle in addressing D.C.'s downtown woes, converting an office building into a residential property is no small feat. Here are a few important factors relating to real estate taxes to keep in mind when considering an office-to-residential conversion.

Real property tax rates

Real property tax rates in the District vary considerably from residential to commercial real estate. Residential properties, including multifamily apartment buildings, are taxed at a 0.85% rate. The commercial tax rate, which is used for office buildings, is more than double that rate at 1.89% for properties assessed over $10 million.

To the extent a property contains both residential and commercial space, D.C. will apply a mixed-use tax rate based on the pro-rata allocation of residential versus commercial space. Consequently, how the District classifies a property can have an immense impact on tax liability and carrying costs.

Timing of reclassification

A costly misstep would be to assume that the tax rate will immediately change from 1.89% to 0.85% after an office property is acquired for residential conversion. In fact, if there is any commercial use continuing at the building, the commercial tax rate will still apply.

Moreover, the District historically has been inconsistent in its application of when a building should "convert" from commercial to residential for purposes of tax classification. Although the D.C. Code provides a property should be reclassified when there is no current use and the property's highest-and-best use is residential, some assessors have taken a more aggressive approach and argued that the property should not be reclassified until the redevelopment is more than 65% complete.

Property acquisition

An additional hurdle lies in the acquisition process itself. When an office building is acquired for a residential conversion, higher transfer and recordation taxes apply. For commercial and mixed-use properties, the transfer and recordation taxes are 5% of the sale, as opposed to 2.9% for a purely residential building.

The mayor's proposed 2024 budget would allow the higher transfer and recordation tax rate to expire later this year, but the D.C. Council had not adopted the measure at the time of this writing and may or may not allow the higher rate to sunset. Under the current code, there is no exception for the acquisition of an office property that is being purchased for purposes of a residential conversion.


Finally, in an effort to spur redevelopment, the mayor has announced her intention to offer tax abatements for office-to-residential conversions that meet certain criteria. At this point, it is difficult to determine the financial implications of the tax abatement program for a specific redevelopment because there is no set formula for deriving the amount of an abatement.

What is known, however, is that there are specific requirements to qualify for the abatements. Among other conditions, these include:

  • Affordability. 15% of the housing units must be affordable.
  • Location. The redevelopment must be within a specific geographic area.
  • Designated contractors. 35% of the construction contract must go to specific business enterprises that have been certified by the District.

These requirements further complicate the already challenging task of successfully executing an office-to-residential conversion.

In short, the real estate tax implications of an office-to-residential redevelopment are highly dependent on the unique facts and circumstances of each case, and the varying tax rates can have huge implications for a property's development budget. A developer considering such a conversion should contact experienced counsel early in the process.

Jonathan L. Cloar is a partner at the Washington D.C. law firm Wilkes Artis, the Washington D.C. member of American Property Tax Counsel, the national affiliation of property tax attorneys. Sydney Bardouil is an associate at the firm.
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