Property Tax Resources


How to Determine Excessive Taxes

"Managed properly, property taxes are an area where owners produce significant savings without significant expense."

John E. Garippa, Esq., as published by Real Estate New Jersey, February 2006

As we begin 2006, it's appropriate to think about planning for the coming year relating to property taxes. Too often, planning in this area resembles a fire drill, performed at the very last minute. Many times, property owners assume that property taxes are a fixed expense not requiring annual management. However, if managed properly, property taxes can be an area where owners produce significant savings every year without a significant outlay of expense.

Every commercial property owner needs to put tools in place that will allow annual examination of their property's income and expense. On January 1st of each year, enter on an Excel spreadsheet all income and expense information for each property owned last year and in previous years. This enables owners to easily compare this year's income and expenses against those of prior years.

Also, market cap rates and vacancy rates should be utilized to see what changes have taken place in the valuation of a property. For example, if studies indicate greater vacancy rates in the comparable area than in the owner's property, the owner should argue for the utilization of the market vacancy in developing the property's assessment. This, of course, results in a lower property value. On the other hand, if the property demonstrates greater vacancy than the market, this calls for the owner to argue that the property suffers from obsolescence issues.

Retain competent appraisers and consultants to give advice as to what current cap rates and vacancy rates ought to be. At the same time, property owners will want to examine local markets to find comparables indicating what that property would rent for if exposed in the market. This last exercise is critical because taxing authorities base assessments on current market figures, not necessarily the actual income currently derived from a property.

Competently performing the tasks outlined puts property owners in a good position to evaluate property tax assessments aftera ll valuation notices are received on or about February 1 of each New Year. All property owners receive valuation notices reflecting the latest assessment on their properties. What will not be disclosed on the notice is the overall percentage level of assessment in the taxing jurisdiction.

Few taxing authorities assess properties at 100% of present market value except when a municipality-wide revaluation takes place. That means, in all other years, the percentage level of assessment falls below 100% of market value. While actual assessments may not change from year to year, the overall level of assessment within a jurisdiction always does.

Diligent examination of these changes allows the owner to reach accurate conclusions on the merits of a property tax appeal. Any owner can call their local board of taxation or contact the New Jersey Division of Taxation to find out the applicable percentage level of assessment for their property.

New Jersey sets the absolute deadline for filing an appeal as April 1st. Missing this deadline means the owner must await next year's assessment to file an appeal. If owners utilize the tools discussed here, a competent property tax professional will quickly determine if an appeal is appropriate. An ill-advised appeal often results in an increase in assessment if the property is determined to be undervalued. Thus, competency and significant due diligence become critical.

Using the tools describ ed above also allows the property owner to quickly answer Chapter 91 requests filed by the local tax assessor. Under New Jersey law, a tax assessor can annually demand income and expense information for property within their jurisdiction. Failure to respond to these notices within 45 days causes disallowance of any tax appeal for that year. Many legitimate tax appeals are dismissed just for this failure to respond in a timely manner.

These tools also aid in the successful prosecution of an appeal as it goes forward. By demonstrating changes in the property from year to year, legitimate areas of obsolescence and market weakness can be shown to the assessor, producing lower valuations.

Whether an owner has a large, multi-state portfolio or only a single property, employing these tools holds down excessive property taxation. The larger the property portfolio, the greater the opportunity for mismanagement. Ongoing management and record-keeping insures a timely ability to manage property tax expense. The first step is proper planning as the New Year begins.

The views expressed here are those of the author and not of Real Estate Media or its publications.

Garippa155John E. Garippa is the senior partner in the law firm of Garippa Lotz & Giannuario with offices in Montclair, NJ and Philadelphia, PA, and was also the president of American Property Tax Counsel, the national affiliation of property tax attorneys. He can be reached at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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Reducing Excessive Hotel Property Taxes

"Before undertaking an appeal based on uniformity or equal protection requirements, owners should consult with their property tax representative for guidance regarding the relative benefits and costs of pursuing this type of appeal."

Property taxes usually comprise one of the largest single expense items on any hotel owner's P & L. With so much at stake, it becomes critical for owners to understand those issues that allow them to successfully protest excessive property taxes. This article provides an overview of those issues. The process of reducing property taxes works on the government's timetable, not one the taxpayer sets. Every jurisdiction establishes strict procedures for appealing property tax assessments. One missed step in the process can prohibit an appeal to the next level. For example, if an owner fails to protest an assessment at the local review board, many states prohibit an appeal to the state tax court or board. Most of these local review boards meet very soon after annual assessment notices are sent to taxpayers. This allows the hotel owner very little time to decide whether to file an appeal. However, failure to act timely can leave the owner with no appeal options.

Knowing the deadlines for filing appeals is essential to preserving appeal rights. In some jurisdictions, meeting with assessing authorities very early, even before the deadline for appeal, may be beneficial. Experienced property tax counsel can provide guidance as to the best strategy for obtaining a successful outcome based on a property's situation and the particular jurisdiction involved.

Where no basis exists for property tax exemption, do not relent. Instead, determine whether the government's valuation of the property falls in line with other similar properties and with the applicable value standard, usually a fair market value standard (although sometimes labeled fair value, cash value, true value or usual selling price).

In most jurisdictions, a hotel assessed at a higher valuation than other similar properties may bear a very heavy burden of proof in a tax appeal. Such proof requires evidence far more than just comparing the hotel's per room assessment to the assessments of one or two others in the jurisdiction. Before undertaking an appeal based on uniformity or equal protection requirements, owners should consult with their property tax representative for guidance regarding the relative benefits and costs of pursuing this type of appeal.

While assessment reductions based on a property's value are often more simple to achieve than a uniformity appeal, valuation appeals still involve a myriad of issues. Those issues can involve the cost approach to value, which can be especially important to assessing officials where construction is recent, as well as the sales comparison approach. Of course, the income approach is usually the most significant indicator of value for a hotel. Unlike some properties leased on a net-basis, where the property's stabilized net income is obvious and capitalization rates are well known, using the income approach to value a hotel is much more complicated because of the many variables that impact a hotel's value. The following points illustrate a few of the most significant variables facing hotel owners in a valuation appeal where the income approach to value is the crux of the dispute:

  •  In calculating the value of a hotel, the primary drivers are expected occupancy and average daily room rates. Other factors include expenses, and as detailed below, capitalization rates. Furthermore, calculating expected income and expenses requires considering the operating experience of the property as well as analyzing data from other hotel properties.
  • Whether basing an income approach to value on a single- year stabilized income or discounted cash flow analysis, the valuation must take into account a market based capitalization rate. The selection of a proper direct capitalization rate or discount rate involves several considerations. For example, the type of hotel property involved, its location, and if available, the capitalization rates for this type of hotel property in a comparable geographic area, as well as the economic performance of the hotel, including its performance relative to other similar hotel properties.
  • Even after calculating the value for the entire business enterprise, the value of personal property and intangible assets have to be subtracted in order to derive the value of the real property. Many states have exempted from taxation tangible personal property found at hotels. In states that tax hotel tangible personal property, other issues may exist, such as whether the hotel has over-reported tangible personal property, and whether the tax authority has accurately accounted for obsolescence.
  •  Last, but not least, hotels need to subtract the value of intangible assets from their business enterprise value. Some intangible assets, such as liquor licenses, rarely encounter controversy regarding their value. Others, such as the value of a franchise, often become the subject of a dispute with the assessor. Many taxing jurisdictions fail to recognize two key issues: 1) that the business enterprise value of a hotel includes the value of intangible assets and 2) that the value of all intangible assets must be deducted from the enterprise value to reach a valuation of the real and tangible personal property.

Unfortunately, unless taxpayers take action, many taxing jurisdictions will collect and retain property taxes based on unlawful, excessive valuations. Now for the good news: when unlawfully excessive valuations are imposed and appeals timely filed, tax savings are often achieved. Of course, the odds of a successful outcome increase with the sophistication, knowledge, and ability of those involved in the property tax appeal.

MANDELL StewartStewart L. Mandell and Michael Shapiro are partners in the Detroit headquartered law firm of Honigman Miller Schwartz and Cohn LLP, the Michigan member of American Property Tax Counsel (APTC), the national affiliation of property tax attorneys. Stewart L. Mandell can be reached at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. and Micheal Shapiro can be reached at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..

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LIHTC Project hit with Full Property Tax Burden

Concord - An LIHTC project for seniors got no breaks from the New Hampshire Board of Tax and Land Appeals. In Epping Senior Housing Associates, L.P., V. Town of Epping, the court ruled that LIHTCs must be factored into the value of the property for purposes of property tax assessment.

The LIHTCs were one of the bundle of rights that Epping Senior Housing Associates enjoyed by the purchase and development of the 40-unit Whispering Pines II, and so they should be counted in the valuation, explained John McSorley, assistant director of the property appraisal division of the New Hampshire Department of Revenue Administration.

The opinion was rendered in march and was a case of first impression, meaning that no court in the state had previously ruled on the LIHTC/property tax issue. Numerous out-of-state cases were cited by both sides, but the court gave weight to those that included the value of credits in the assessment. It said "the New Hampshire tax statutes do not distinguish between property rights that are 'tangible' [meaning land] and those that are 'intangible" [ meaning LIHTCs] in nature."

"Tax credits may run with the land, but they are subject to recapture if the property is sold, which operates as a dis-incentive to sell before the credit period runs out." said Elliott B. Pollack, chairman of the valuation section of Pullman & Comley, LLC, and the Connecticut member of the American Property Tax Counsel. Pollack recently reported on a later-decided Connecticut case that did not give value to the tax credits (see Affordable Housing Finance, July 2005, page 42.)

The New Hampshire court, however, said that under existing state law, this was the only decision it could reach and that it was up to the legislature to change how LIHTCs would be valued.

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Bleak Future for Business Owners?

"Under the tax court's current interpretation, most equipment used in any manufacturing process will now be taxed as if it were real estate."

In the decades prior to 1982, New Jersey enjoyed a robust industrial and commercial environment. This rosy outlook began to change about 1982, and recent events have cast a significant pall over future prospects for industrial and commercial property owners.

Since 1982, New Jersey has lost more than 22% of its manufacturing establishments, and more than 49% of its manufacturing job base. These losses outpace the country as a whole, and the declining number of establishments and jobs negatively impact New Jersey's economy. This effect rolls into the future as well because the state has lost all that real property that would have been built and the growth that would have taken place in the economy.

Recognizing the importance of maintaining that manufacturing base, in 1992 the legislature enacted the "Business Retention Act" designed to prohibit business personal property from taxation as real property. It was intended to promote business construction, expansion and acquisition.

Unfortunately, the Tax Court recently interpreted that law in a way that completely turns upside down the rationale for its passage. Under the court's interpretation, most equipment used in manufacturing will now be taxed as if it were real estate. This includes business personal property that costs millions of dollars, like process piping, conveyors, pressure tanks, paint booths and ovens, etc. Any company planning to locate a manufacturing plant here or expand an existing plant will now seriously rethink that move in light of the hundreds of thousands of dollars in additional real estate taxes they will face.

As if that action weren't bad enough, the Tax Court has thrown out the New Jersey constitution's "uniformity" clause, requiring that all real property be taxed on a uniform basis of fair market value (what a willing buyer would pay a willing seller in an arm's length transaction). This new ruling significantly increases many business' property tax assessments.

To illustrate this effect, let's take an automobile assembly plant. No plant of this type has ever sold to a new owner who used the plant to assemble cars. Thus, if the plant sold to a new owner the buyer would pay the plant's owner a substantially smaller amount than the value the plant holds for the owner assembling automobiles in it. The new owner pays market value, not the value the property has as an auto assembly plant. The court's ruling means the auto plant will now pay an assessment based on the value of the plant's use, not the value of the plant in today's market.

The auto assembly plant is just one example of a myriad of New Jersey business whose property will sell at prices far below their property tax assessments. Despite this fact, the taxing authority will assess the current owner at dollar amounts substantially above market prices. This new ruling forces business owners, even those most ardent New Jersey supporters, to look at other states for their for business expansion.

Adding insult to injury, the state assembly approved a measure convening a property tax convention to review and make recommendations for constitutional changes in the way New Jersey taxes real property. This bill awaits a vote in the state senate.For those involved in commercial real estate, it is clear this convention will recommend a change in the state constitution's "uniformity" provision. That change will probably substitute a classification system for the "uniformity" clause.

the classification system taxes commercial and industrial property on a higher percentage of value than residential. Currently, residential and business property is taxed uniformly at the same percentage of value. Under a classification system, the taxing authority could assess residential at, say, 50% of its value, while assessing business property at 100%. Clearly, a greater percentage of the tax burden would be on the business community under a classification system.

Because New Jersey fails to cut spending and rein in run away state pensions, the state will continue to hit its tax base with higher reviews. Manufacturing and other enterprises will continue to wither on the vine as the business community faces higher taxes. In an environment where other states seem to bend over backwards to provide a climate that attracts business, New Jersey has taken a completely different course. Who can take seriously the State Department of Commerce slogan, "New Jersey and You - Perfect Together"?

Garippa155 John E. Garippa is senior partner of the law firm of Garippa Lotz & Giannuario with offices in Montclair, NJ and Philadelphia, PA, New Jersey and Pennsylvania member of American Property Tax Counsel, the national affiliation of property tax attorneys. He can be reached at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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Checklist for Hiring Best Property Tax Representative

"...distinguishing factual characteristics not marketing boasts..."

Research shows that owners of malls and retail centers look for distinguishing factual characteristics not marketing boasts when they hire property tax representatives to assist them in contesting their property taxes. Four criteria are critical to these owners in making their buying decisions. These criteria are:

  • Experience in property tax but also in related areas such as appraisal or real estate that can aid in the property tax outcome.
  • Resources, the depth of people and scope of expertise to handle the matter and the access to any necessary outside resources such as lawyers and expert witnesses.
  • Leadership, a clear demonstration of a leadership role in property taxes because owners believe that leadership is a factual predictor of success.
  • Relationships, a firm culture that fosters long-term relationships.
  • While owners need to ask tax representatives many questions in order to determine how well they measure up to the criteria, the following 20 areas of questioning are critical:
  • What mall/retail center properties have you represented?
  • What percentage of your clients are owners of mall/retail center properties?
  • What articles relating to malls/retail centers has your firm written and had published in trade and/or professional journals? How many of these articles has your firm written in the last three years?
  • How many administrative hearings or lawsuits involving mall/retails centers have you personally been involved with in the last two years?
  • Describe some of the more significant ones?
  • Which MAI appraisers have you personally worked with on mall/retail center cases? Describe their valuation approaches?
  • Explain the evolution of appraisal theory and describe the content of appraisal literature relating to malls/retail centers?
  • What approaches have you used over the last several years to resolve mall/retail center cases? How do these approaches differ from other tax representatives or from tax authorities?
  • What appraisal designations do any members of your firm have? What courses in appraisal methods have members of your firm taken or taught? In what years were these courses taken or taught?
  • Other than appraisal and tax consultant experience, what other backgrounds do members of your firm possess that would aid in your representation of us?
  • What leadership position(s) has your firm occupied in the property tax field and in what years was this?
  • Have you been involved with your state Legislature in developing property tax law? How were you involved with these legislative matters?
  • What efforts does your firm undertake to keep informed about mall/retail issues in other states?
  • What memberships does your firm hold in national property tax organizations and how often over the last three years have you personally attended their meetings?
  • Describe how you keep informed concerning legal issues relating to malls/retail centers? If the candidate firm is not a law firm, ask, "Describe how you handle matters involving legal issues?"
  • Describe the credentials of members of your firm and the length of time they have been with your firm?
  • Who will specifically handle my case and will my case be moved among various members of your firm?
  • What does your firm do to develop an exchange of ideas among your clients? For example do you introduce your clients to each other?
  • What do you do to insure prompt and effective communication with your clients? What form of reports can I expect?
  • What factually distinguishes your firm from other providers?

Using these questions with appropriate probing for factual answers will provide owners with the information they require to select the most qualified property tax representation.

Jim Popp Web-ResJim Popp is a partner with the law firm of Popp Hutcheson PLLC in Austin, Texas. Popp Hutcheson PLLC is the Texas member of American Property Tax Counsel, the national affiliation of property tax attorneys. Mr. Popp can be reached at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..

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Taxation of Business Enterprise Values

"Property owners must help define the parts of a property that are real estate, separating out the non-real estate assessable property. "

The only property in the state of New York subject to taxation is real property. The state legislature has reinforced this point by stating, "Notwithstanding [all other general or local laws to the contrary], personal property, whether tangible or intangible, shall not be liable to ad valorem taxation."

Although local assessors can only levy property taxes on real estate alone, their valuations embrace elements of business value, personal property and intangible property. Depending on the nature of the real estate property type, assessors tend to inflate valuations.

This inflation is best explained by breaking down real property assessments based on asset class.

Hotels. By nature, a hotel operation combines real estate, e.g. bricks and mortar, with business enterprise and personal property. When a patron rents a room, he pays for the use of furniture, hotel services, room service and the reputation of the hotel (franchise value).

Shopping Centers

Much debate has taken place around the country regarding the significant elements of business enterprise value as they relate to shopping centers. An experienced developer has multiple centers and an organization of people who orchestrate the selection and mix of retail tenants, using their expertise to provide incentives that can attract anchor department stores. The marketing, advertising and development skills of the developer account for a mall's success. However, the assessor rarely takes this into account when he capitalizes all of the mall's net income. Of course, the mall derives income from sources such as licenses for pushcarts, car dealer displays, special events an dother items. Despite the fact that none of these income streams derive from real property, no deduction is ever given for the business enterprise value created by the developer. When amlls are rated, sales per foot is the benchmark, not rental rates per sf, which recognizes business enterprise value.

Office Buildings.

Here, profits generated by the owner from sales of services requested by tenantes are included in assessors' total net income for a property. These services may include items such as build-outs and extra services not part of the lease provisions. If the tenant ordered a door or extra cleaning from a vendor, these actions would not be classified as real estate income. However, if the property owner's business provides the service, it somehow transforms itself into real estate value.

If a building has an emergency power generator, it is generally separately assessed, even though the owner reports the tenant's rent, which includes use of the generator. The assessor also values the office building, in effect doubling taxation.


Assessors tax billboards and electronic signs on buildings based on the owner's net income from these signs rather than taxing them on the physical value of the signs. An owner of a building that received advertising revenue for the use of billboards on its property will often find that the assessor uses that income to value the real estate. However, when a company like MetLife puts its name on its own building, it pays no extra tax.

Billboards and electronic signs on buildings are also taxed based on the owner's media business net income rather than physical value. Depending on the content and type of business using signage, it produces income, which is often assumed to be part of real estate value. If Ernst and Young put its name on its own office building, no extra tax sould be due, but a Jumbotron in Times Square might pay real estate taxes on its income from advertisers, if assessors could get their hands on it.

If the trade name "Trump Place" were separately rented from its owners, would rental payments be real estate income? What difference in value would occur if a hotel had no TVs, beds, furniture, brand name, good reputation, trained workforce or reservation system? That bare-bones hotel building is the only property that's assessable. It is the fee-simple estate stripped of its intangible business enterprise and personal property that, by law, should be the basis of a property tax bill.

Successful business enterprise models are by nature intangible, brought about by time, expertise and business skills. They consistently produce additional rental income. Property owners and their representatives must help define the parts of a property that are real estate, separating out the non-real estate assessable property; otherwise owners will have paid much in taxes without realizing it.

The views expressed in this article are those of the author and not those of Real Estate Media or its publications.

JoelMarcus Joel R. Marcus is a partner in the New York City law firm of Marcus & Pollack, the New York City member of American Property Tax Counsel, the national affiliation of property tax attorneys. He can be reached at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..

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Gateway School District is Challenging Major Property Assessments

Gateway School District is challenging real estate assessments on major commercial properties in Monroeville in lawsuits that could significantly increase tax revenues. Gateway maintains that Monroeville Mall, Miracle Mile Shopping Center and the old Cochran automotive property are undervalued on the tax rolls. Hundreds of thousands of dollars, perhaps millions, are at stake. For every $1 million in assessed value, Gateway, Allegheny County and Monroeville collect $26,300. The school district takes the lion's share, or about $19,410. The tax cases, filed in Common Pleas Court, also offer a glimpse into the arcane world of high-stakes commercial real estate transactions.

The biggest challenge is over Monroeville Mall, which is assessed at $120.8 million. A year ago, according to news accounts, Miami-based Turnberry Associates sold the mall to CBL & Associates, of Chattanooga, Tenn., for $231.2 million. The mall pays about $3.2 million a year in property taxes. Using the sale figure, taxes would increase to $6.1 million. But CBL attorney J. Kieran Jennings testified at a May 27 hearing before the county Board of Property Assessment, Appeals and Review that CBL did not buy the mall for $231 million. "There was absolutely no transfer of property," he said. He said the original owner still owns the land and CBL is the tenant. CBL pays a ground lease of $650,000 a year and has an $11.95 million option to buy. He claimed the property is worth $12 million -- 90 percent less than the appraised value -- in a letter to the assessment board. But he testified at the hearing, "I'm not saying that's what it's worth. That is not what we're proposing. You have an extremely convoluted transaction here."

At $231 million, he said, the mall would be priced "way beyond what we ever see in Allegheny County. And $12 million is certainly a ridiculous number." The correct assessment may come down to separating the value of the mall's real estate from the business' other assets.

Both sides bolstered their cases with documents that CBL filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, but they ended up confusing the hearing officer. Gateway cited a filing in which CBL declares that it acquired the mall "for total consideration of $231.2 million," including a $134 million debt, $61 million in new partnership shares and $36.25 million in cash. Jennings cited a different SEC filing in which CBL put the "transaction costs" slightly higher, at $231.6 million, including a $134 million debt, $46.2 million in partnership shares, $39.5 million cash and a $12 million obligation in the land underlying the mall.

"I certainly need some help here," said hearing officer Ken Gossett.

"It's confusing," The property should be appraised, Jennings said. "It may be that it gets appraised, and it comes in at $175 million," he said. "It may come in at $120 million. It may come in at $230 million. But ultimately we do know this. We know we have a sale ... that has a tremendous amount of extensions to it. It was certainly not something we'd call a clean deal."

Gossett said he would rule that the evidence was insufficient to change the assessment, and Gateway could appeal to Common Pleas Court. Hearing officers made similar rulings in the other cases. Miracle Mile, at 4100 William Penn Highway, is assessed at $31.1 million.

Oakmont Partners LLC bought the 51-year-old shopping center in March from Casto-Skilken Group, the original developer. The price was not disclosed, and the transaction included several other area shopping centers.

Oakmont partner Stephen Zamias would not say how much Miracle Mile is worth. "As it is now, $31 million is extremely fair, based on where the income level is," Zamias said. Then noting that three store spaces are vacant, he said "It's probably over-assessed."

The Cochran property at 4200 William Penn Highway is assessed at $13,057,300. Cochran Automotive used to sell cars there and now a Lowe's hardware store operates from the site. The property owner is listed as O.F.E.W limited partnership, which traces back to the new No. 1 Cochran automotive complex farther up the highway.

The partnership's attorneys declined to discuss the case. Gateway appealed the Cochran assessment to Common Pleas Court in April and the mall and shopping center assessments on July 12. Gateway Solicitor Lawrence Demase would not say what he thinks the three properties are worth. Gateway was not entitled to private records for the property assessment hearings, he said, but in court he can use the discovery process to get better information. "We can try to unravel the situation," Demase said. He said the cases could take several years to resolve.

(Bill Heltzel can be reached at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. or 412-263-1719.)

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How to Avoid High Property Taxes

"Understanding the difference between market value and sale price can lead to a tax reduction."

The foundation for a property tax appeal rests on an analysis of the property's value for real estate tax purposes. The valuation analysis can be based on numerous comparisons, the most important of which is the comparison of market price to sale price. The analysis also must include the property's ability to generate revenue.

This valuation analysis provides the first clue regarding whether the assessor's valuation of a property is equitable. Market value is most often defined as the probable price a willing buyer would pay a willing seller in the open market. It implies that the property has been on the market for a reasonable length of time, and that both buyer and seller know the present and potential use of the property.

The sale price at which a property sells does not necessarily reflect market value for property tax purposes. For example, a developer probably pays more than market value for parcels needed for a site being assembled to build a shopping center. On the other hand, a seller needing cash in a hurry probably sells at below market price.

Further, in most cases the sale price includes more than just the tangible real estate. Non-real estate value components, such as personal property (furniture, fixtures, equipment and inventory), contract rights, brand name, patents, copyrights, an assembled work force, special financing and business enterprise value are included in the sale price. Non-real estate elements have no place in the formulation of a property tax assessment.

Owners need to closely scrutinize all of the components of the sale price as well as the motivation behind the sale to determine whether the sale price is equal to the property's value for real estate tax purposes.

Market rent vs. contract rent

The buyer of a single-family home makes the purchase to enjoy the benefits that the property will afford in the future. Likewise, the buyer of an investment property pays the purchase price in order to receive future benefits -- the annual income stream generated in rents.

In making decisions about buying or selling a property, investors, the typical owners of income-producing property, rely primarily on the property's ability to produce income. Analyzing the property's income potential can determine if the property tax assessment is fair.

Of the various types of rents, taxing authorities usually base their property tax assessments on either market rent or contract rent.

Market rent is the rate justified for a property based on what owners of comparable properties in the area charge to rent their space. With certain exceptions, property tax assessments are generally determined based on mark et rent.

However, the assessor may use contract rents as the basis for tax assessments. Contract rent represents the rent payments required of a tenant under the terms of a lease. Often, market rent and contract rent calculations arrive at the same number, but where contract rent is less than market rent, property tax value is affected. So, depending on whether the assessor uses market or contract rent as the basis for determining a property tax assessment, an owner can pay more or less tax.

Real-life applications

Let's say a tenant signs a lease agreeing to pay $5 per sq. ft. for office space that rents on the open market for $10 per sq ft. If the property tax assessment is determined based on the $5 per sq ft contract rent, the property generates less revenue, and therefore has less value, than if the assessment is determined based on the $10 per sq ft. market rent.

Consequently, if the taxing authority bases the assessment on market rent, the contract rent supports a lower assessment than market rent. In such a case, a property tax appeal may well be successful.

Owners must understand whether the law requires taxing jurisdictions to value property base on market rent or contract rent, and whether the owners' property is charging a market rent. With this information, an appropriate decision can be reached concerning the appeal of the assessment.

Before making a final decision to appeal a property tax assessment, it may be useful for the owner to obtain a property tax appraisal to help verify the property's value for tax purposes.

Failing to understand what constitutes value from a property tax point of view results in high property taxes.

vnorman Vickie L. Norman is counsel at Faegre Baker Daniels in Indianapolis, the Indiana member of the American Property Tax Counsel. The APTC is the national affiliation of property tax attorneys.
She can be reached at

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Condo Converters Face a Taxing Question

"Projects Being Assessed at Full-Market Value During Renovation"

Developers who buy rental properties with the intention of converting them to condos and reaping a handsome profit may be forking over more than their fair share of that future gain to local governments.

In a sense, condo converters have become victims of their own success, according to Andy Raines, a partner with Stokes Bartholomew Evans & Petree in Memphis, Tenn., whose firm is a member of American Property Tax Counsel (APTC), the national affiliation of property-tax attorneys. The public perception of condo markets works against developers in cash-strapped municipalities.

"Condo developments are seen as being high-end and lucrative and local governments are saying: 'Hey, we can get a piece of that pie,'" said Raines.

What is happening is that many condo-conversion projects are being assessed at their full, future, market value during the months-lo9ng (or even years-long) renovation state - and well before the developer is ready to sell the units.

"Some assessors come in and essentially value or tax the individual units as if they've been totally renovated and the conversion is complete and estimate what the units would sell for based on market information," said Gilbert Davila of Popp & Ikard in Austin, Texas, a law firm that specializes in the field of property tax and also a member of the APTC.

Davila said that's a mistake because the assessment should be a "snapshot in time" of the property. If a property is only 50percent complete at evaluation time, the assessor should not approximate or speculate what it will be worth at a future date, he added.

"[Assessors] can't predict the future," said Davila. "There might be problems, construction delays, a myriad of different problems on the road to getting a project completed."

What's a developer to do? With property tax laws varying so widely from state to state, it's difficult to give blanket advice. But Raines did say that "timing is very important. To the extent the developer can postpone [assessment] at the full value, they may sell the units by then, and after they sell, it's the buyers issue."

And both Davila and Raines stressed that developers should be aware of their state's legal process for challenging assessments they don't agree with.

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A Judge Makes Policy, Taxpayers Pay More

"By law, the Tax Court's role is to determine value, not to redistribute the tax burden."

General Motors vs. Linden, one of the oldest pending tax cases in the country, writes yet another chapter in the continuing saga of issues taxpayers must combat everyday. Each year from 1983 through 2004, General Motors appealed its local property tax assessments on its automobile assembly plant in Linden. In 1991, the Tax Court rendered a decision that found the highest and best use of the property to be an automobile assembly plant and, therefore, taxed all of the plant's machinery and equipment.

In 1993, the New Jersey Appellate Division reversed that decision and sent the case back to the Tax Court. In so doing, it stated quire clearly to the Tax Court that it was a mistake to characterize the highest and best use of the General Motors' Linden plant as an automobile assembly plant.

Recently, a judge sitting on the New Jersey Tax Court rendered an opinion of the highest and best use of the property. This was not the same judge who ruled in the 1991 case. This judge completely rejected the reversal of the Appellate Court some 12 years ago, and concluded essentially the same decision that was rendered in the 1991 case. What is astounding about this opinion is not only did the court totally ignore the principles set forth in the reversal, but it blatantly stated it was doing so to enforce a policy of the Tax Court to equalize the tax burden of certain taxpayers across the state.

This should send a chill up the spines of all non-residential taxpayers in New Jersey and across the country. In a time when activist judges are being called into question in high profile issues such as Presidential elections, the right to life and the right to die, property tax cases fly well under the radar. Nonetheless, make no mistake about it - this insidious activism is just as harmful as those issues attracting much more attention.

The seminal decision in New Jersey on the issue of "highest and best use" was rendered in Ford Motor Co. v. Edison Township in 1992. In that case, the New Jersey Supreme Court delineated the appropriate standard to be used in valuing property for tax assessment purposes. It very clearly made the point that property must be valued based on what a willing buyer would pay a willing seller for the property given the use to which it would put.

In the Ford case, the Supreme Court crafted a doctrine which recognized that limiting the review of the subject's highest and best use to its current use as an automobile assembly plant would distort how the market would analyze the property if it were sold. The property's highest and best use must be achievable, and not speculative or remote.

Thus, in order to reach its conclusion, the Tax Court in the General Motors case totally rejected the law in the Ford litigation despite the incredible symmetry of the cases. It concluded that the property should be valued not as a general-purpose industrial property, but as an automobile assembly plant. the Court made this finding in spite of the fact that experts from both the plaintiff and defendant testified that if the plant were ever offered for sale it would never be purchased for use as an automobile assembly plant and, thus, would trade as a general industrial facility.

The Tax Court openly admitted it was setting tax policy. The New Jersey Tax Court stated, "determining a highest and best use that will result in value being attributed to the automobile assembly features of the subject property is consistent with and effectuates the public policy of fairly and equitably distributing the property tax burden."

The focus of the Tax Court's policy is to tax industrial property at its highest value, not to tax it as the statutes require, at the true value in the marketplace. Its opinion merely furthers its policy objectives without regard to how market forces will treat this property. By law, the Tax Court's role is to determine value, not to redistribute the tax burden.

This latest 2005 General Motors opinion is saturated with the singular focus of a misguided philosophy regarding redistributing the tax burden. It replaces adherence to the law with policymaking by the judiciary. Judicial activism must be met with appeals to the highest courts in order to preserve property owners' rights under the law.

The views expressed here are those of the author and not of Real Estate Media or its publications.

Phil Giannuario is a partner in the Montclair, NJ law firm Garippa Lotz and Giannuario, the New Jersey and Eastern Pennsylvania member of American Property Tax Counsel, the national affiliation of property tax attorneys. He can be reached at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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